Body Page Navigation Panel
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the Instruments Q. What are the EX5, EX7, and EX5R?
A. The EX5 is a 76-key synthesizer, the EX7 is a 61-key synthesizer,
and the EX5R is a rack-mountable tone generator module. Except for
having or not having a keyboard, and minor controller differences,
the EX5 and EX5R have essentially the same features and functions.
The EX7 is a simpler version of the EX5, with differences in tone
generator structure and features.
What is the maximum polyphony of the EX instruments?
A. The EX5 and EX5R AWM tone generator sections have a maximum
polyphony of 126 notes, plus the output from the VL, AN, and FDSP
tone generator sections. The maximum polyphony of the EX7 is 64
notes from the AWM tone generator stage plus the output from the
AN and FDSP tone generator stages. The actual polyphony, however,
will depend on the tone generator stages used simultaneously, the
number of elements used in voices, and effect settings. The number
of notes available decreases in proportion to the number and type
of elements used. For example, If an EX5 or EX5R voice uses two
AWM elements, the maximum polyphony is 64 (in the same situation
on the EX7, maximum polyphony would be 32).
1; FDSP: 8
note that the actual polyphony may be reduced under certain conditions.
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the Tone Generation System
Q. What is Extended Synthesis?
A. Each EX family synthesizer incorporates multiple highly-acclaimed
synthesis engines from Yamaha, with which is most appropriate for
your desired sound you can play the instrument.
What is AWM Synthesis?
A. AWM (Advanced Wave Memory) is one of popular synthesis from
Yamaha, that enables sound creation using sampled waveforms provided
(preset). AWM provides you an advantage of realistic and natural
reproduction. Even more, the EX family synthesizers allow for user
sampling to add a new waveform and use it with AWM as well as preset
ones. With the EX, you get virtually unlimited expandability in
listen to the Audio Track No. #05 Pf: Natural Grnd, #09 Or: Jimmy
Perc and #15 Gt: Steel.
What is VL?
A. VL refers to the name of another musical instrument product
from Yamaha, and actual name of the synthesis adopted to that product
and EX is VA (Virtual Acoustic). Based on a DSP (digital signal
processing) technology, VA synthesis can create a virtual musical
instrument that is called a physical model, simulating an instrument
itself, not its sound or timbre. Simulated instruments such as sax
or flute (wind instruments), guitar or violin (string instrument)
are especially highly acclaimed in its realistic sound. This innovative
synthesis is available with the EX5 and EX5R.
listen to the Audio Track No. #12 Br: Trumpet.
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What is AN synthesis?
A. AN is a synthesis that fully simulates an analog synthesizer
based on a DSP technology called Analog Physical Modeling. AN synthesis
has an advantage to create a fat and heavy lead or bass sound.
listen to the Audio Track No. #17 Ba: Boogie On A.
What is FDSP synthesis?
A. FDSP (Formulated Digital Sound Processing) synthesis has
advantages of VA-based physical modeling and AWM technologies and
implementation of their natural time variance of timbre and realistic
tone. Using 10 different types of FDSP, including simulations for
electric piano and electric guitar pick-ups, you can create a realistic
sound or an unprecedented effect in many nuances.
listen to the Audio Track No. #07 Pf: Jazz Chorus, #08 Pf: Chorus
Bell and #20 Pd: Silverlake.
Can VL and AN voices be used together in a performance setup?
A. Unfortunately, no more than one DSP-based synthesis engine
(VL, AN) can be used at a time. But you can use the EX sampling
feature to sample the VL and/ or AN sounds you want to use, and
them use them in AWM elements.
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the Voices Q. How many voices are there?
A. The EX5, EX7, and EX5R come with 512 preset voices (265 preset
+ 256 internal), and 128 performance setups. The internal voices
and performance setups can be edited and rearranged as required.
Q. What types of voices are provided?
A. When initially shipped the EX Preset banks contain a range
of keyboard type voices, while the Internal banks contain a variety
of voices which are ideal for dance music. Thanks to the Extended
Synthesis system and the EX series sampling capability, these instruments
are capable of producing an extraordinary range of sounds suited
for use in dance music, pops, rock ... even jazz and classical genres.
voice demonstration are provided as audio tracks on this CD-ROM.
Play these demos on a standard audio CD player for maximum quality.
The best way to hear the extraordinary range of voices available,
however, is to actually play them on the EX series instruments.
What do the characters preceding the voice and performance names
A. The two characters preceding the voice and performance names
indicate the voice "category," and are useful for identifying
and locating specific types of voices.
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Is the VOICE mode for simple voice sounds?
A. Up to 4 elements can be used in a single Normal Voice, so
extremely complex sounds can be produced in the VOICE mode. In addition,
2 voice "scenes" can be specified to allow advanced real-time
voice variation. Voice can be layered in the PERFORMANCE mode, and
Drum Voices which have a different structure from the Normal Voices
are provided for even more
What is the structure of Drum Voices?
A. A single Drum Voice can have as many as 128 different elements.
Normally these would be different drum and percussion instruments
assigned to different keys of the keyboard. Sampled data can also
be used, so instead of simple drum sounds you can assign loops and
break beats to different keys as required. And since different filter
settings can be applied to each of the 128
elements, extremely precise sound control is possible.
When is the PERFORMANCE mode most useful?
A. When using the sequencer to play up to 16 voices with individual
settings, or when layering 2 voices for a thicker sound, or when
programming a split keyboard setup. This mode also provides a range
of MIDI settings which give the EX5 and EX7 advanced MIDI master
What is the preset wave capacity?
A. 16 megabytes. But thanks to advanced Yamaha compression technology,
this is actually equivalent to about 29 megabytes of uncompressed
wave memory. 1 megabyte of sampling DRAM is also provided with the
basic EX configuration.
How can I initialize the memory?
A. Turn the power on while holding the [EXIT] button. This erases
all internal voice, performance, system, and MIDI parameters. To
restore the initial factory settings, use the supplied floppy disk.
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Do the EX instruments have sampling capability?
A. Yes. Sampled waveforms can be used in AWM and drum voices.
The EX Key Map feature also makes use of sampled waveforms.
What is the sampling frequency?
A. Samples are recorded by the EX instruments at 44.1 kHz. Samples
read from AKAI(r), AIFF or WAV files, however, can be of any standard
Is the sampling memory expandable?
A. In addition to the 1 megabyte of DRAM initially provided,
two SIMM slots are provided for up to an additional 64 megabytes
(65 megabytes total). The optional EXFLM1 board can also be installed
for an additional 8 megabytes of non-volatile sample memory.
What type of expansion SIMMs can be used?
A. A pair of 72-pin DRAM SIMMs are required, each with a capacity
of 4, 8, 16, or 32 megabytes.
Is waveform editing software available?
A. The latest version of the Yamaha freeware TWE for Windows
and Macintosh can be used. This application was originally released
for use with the Yamaha CBX-D3/ 5 HD Recorder and A3000 sampler.
Are the EX instruments compatible with A3000 data?
A. A3000 Program Voices cannot be used by the EX instruments,
but files can be transferred back and forth using AIFF or WAV format.
If you have the Yamaha TWE installed on your computer, it is most
convenient to transfer sample files via the computer.
the A3000 is a dedicated sampler which uses a different sampling
system from the EX instruments, no direct compatibility
Can the EX instruments load and use AKAI(r) format samples?
A. Yes. AKAI(r), AIFF, and WAV files can be read and used as
When Purchasing DRAM SIMMs
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Does the Arpeggiator only work in the VOICE mode?
A. The Arpeggiator can be used in both the VOICE and PERFORMANCE
Is there a Micro Tuning function?
A. A total of 32 preset Micro Tunings are provided.
"compromise" tuning used for most of the last 200
years of Western music, and found on most electronic keyboards.
Each half step is exactly 1/ 2th of an octave, and music can
be played in any key with equal ease. However, none of the intervals
are perfectly in tune.
tuning is designed so that most of the intervals (especially
the major third and perfect fifth) in the major scale are pure.
This means that other intervals will be correspondingly out
of tune. You need to specify the key (C~ B) you will be playing
same as Pure Major, but designed for the minor scale.
Werckmeister, a contemporary of Bach, designed this tuning so
that keyboard instruments could be played in any key. Each key
has a unique character.
Philipp Kirnberber was also concerned with tempering the scale
to allow performances in any key.
Vallotti and Thomas Young (both midĐ 1700s) deviced this adjustment
to the Pythagorean tuning in which the first six fifths are
lower by the same amount.
is the normal equal tempered scale shifted up 50 cents.
four equally spaced notes per octave. (Play twentyĐ four notes
to move one octave.)
eight equally spaced notes per octave. (Play fortyĐ eight notes
to move one octave.)
observed in the Indian music (white keys [C-B] only).
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What can be done with the Controller Set feature?
A. A voice can include up to 16 controller sets, each of which
is a combination of one or more assignable controllers like Knob
and/ or Modulation Wheel with a controllable function. By fully
utilizing 16 controller sets, you can have a variety of sound controls
for unexpected realtime effects.
What can be done with the Key Map feature?
A. Pattern sequence data and sampled waveforms can be played
via different keys on the keyboard. For example, hi-hat and snare
patterns could be triggered from different keys, sampled loops can
be played back with sequenced patterns, and more.
How many songs can be handled by the Song Sequencer?
A. Only one song can be maintained in internal memory at one
time. Sequential playback of more than one song without delays between
songs can be accomplished using Standard MIDI File type 0 data on
disk with the EX SMF Direct Play function.
What is a "scene"?
A. The positions of all six control knobs can be memorized in
the VOICE or PERFORMANCE mode and instantly recalled as required.
What is convenient about the Controller Knobs?
A. By assigning appropriate parameters to each knob, they can
make voice editing easy and intuitive, allow editing several parameters
at once, and more. Operations that would normally necessitate going
through several display layers can be accomplished easily and in
real time while playing.
The EX series instruments provide a wide range of assignable controllers
in addition to the 6 controller knobs for unprecedented
Is it difficult to make the required knob assignments?
A. When initially shipped the knobs are pre-assigned to a range
of appropriate voice parameters and can be used immediately without
programming. The preset assignments can be used as a starting point
for your own settings.
Can the EX controllers be used to control external instruments and
A. Yes. All controllers can be used to transmit appropriate
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Is arpeggiator data transmitted via MIDI?
A. Yes. Arpeggiator data can be transmitted via any specified
Can the EX sequencer play SY99 song data?
A. Yes. The EX instruments handle SMF data as well as Yamaha's
own ESEQ format, so SY99 song data (ESEQ format) can be played directly.
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Points Q. What does the "DSP Resource Full !!" alert display
A. The EX series instruments employ DSP technology for outstanding
voicing and effect capability. The available DSP capacity is not
unlimited, however, and the "DSP Resource Full !!" alert
will appear when this capacity is exceeded.
Is a voice editor available?
A. At the current time Yamaha has no plans to release a freeware
voice editor application.
Are the EX instruments XG Format and GM compatible?
A. No. Such compatibility has been omitted in order to provide
the highest possible quality and music production power possible.
What does "SONDIUS-XG" on the EX panel mean?
A. Sondius-XG is a license program developed by Yamaha and Stanford
University, joint owners of patents related to Virtual Acoustic
Synthesis. Thus the Sondius-XG logo is displayed on the EX5 and
EX5R, but not on the EX7 because it does not include VL tone generation.
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sensitive / Aftertouch
sensitive / Aftertouch
VL, AN, FDSP, Sampling( 44.1KHz)
AN, FDSP, Sampling( 44.1KHz)
(Preset 256 / Internal 256) *Up to 4 elements for each Normal
voice / up to 128 elements for Drum voice
/ VL+ AWM / FDSP / AN+ AWM / AN+ FDSP / Drum
/ FDSP / AN+ AWM / Drum
Wave available in AWM and Drum mode
DRAM *Optionally expanded up to 72MB (64MB SIMM + 8MB Flash
Pickup / EG pickup / Water / PWM / Flange / Phaser / Self FM
/ Tornado / Ring Mod /Seismic( 10 types)
Tuning setting available, Voice Category Search function
+ Pattern/ Play Effect/ Tempo
/ Step / Overdub / Replace / Punch In
Format 0 for SAVE and LOAD / SMF Format 1 and ESEQ for LOAD
480 per beat
/ MIDI Clock / MTC
/ Step / Overdub / Replace
480 per beat
User kit of up to 128 samples / patterns
*Complete 8 track patterns, single pattern tracks, or sampled
waves can be assigned to each key.
50 / User 50
/ Overdub / Replace
480 per beat
Format 0 direct playback available
x 240 (Backlit) with Contrast knob
4" Stereo Phone
4" Phone x 2
4" Phone x 2
4" Phone x 2
4" Phone x 1
IN / 2 OUT / THRU
/ OUT / THRU
SCSI devices available via optional ASIB1
Data / Synth All / Voice / Wave / SMF / SONG / Pattern / Arpeggio
*SMF Format 1/ ESEQ / AIFF / WAVE / AKAI(r) format Loading only
D Input Gain
Manual, Demo disks
pair of EXFML1 Flash Memory Board (8MB; 2 x 4MB)
pair of 72-pin DRAM SIMMs (Max 64MB; 2 x 32MB)
Individual Output Board for Additional 4 Output
Digital Output Board for AES/ EBU with Word Clock In
SCSI Interface for 50-pin Half Pitch connector *EXIDO1 and EXDGO1
cannot be installed simultaneously.
W) x 407( D) x 129( H) mm
(49 1/ 8" x 16" x 5 1/ 12")
W) x 397( D) x 138( H)
(18 7/ 8" x 15 2/ 3" x 5 5/ 12")
W) x 407( D) x 129( H) mm
(41 3/ 4" x 16" x 5 1/ 12")
kg (44 1/ 8 lbs.)
kg (21 5/ 8 lbs.)
kg (33 1/ 8 lbs.)
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AWM, or "Advanced Wave Memory," is Yamaha's original
system for effectively using sampled waveforms in synthesizers and
tone generators. Although the basis for all AWM voices is a sampled
waveform - a sample of a "real" existing instrument, a
classic synthesizer sound, or other electronically created sounds
- the AWM system provides an extensive range of envelope generator,
filter, modulation, and other parameters which can be applied to
the basic waveform. Furthermore, up to four elements, each with
its own "wave" and a complete set of editable parameters,
can be assigned to each voice. The strength of AWM synthesis lies
not only in its outstanding sound quality (it uses 16-bit, 44.1
kHz samples), but also in its extraordinary ability to "shape"
and control the sound of the samples.
synthesis also allows the creation of "drum voices" in
which different drum and percussion instruments with individual
volume, pitch, and timbre parameters can be assigned to individual
notes of the keyboard (from C-2 through G8).
EX5, EX5R, and EX7 feature a built-in sampling system which is capable
of sampling sounds from external sources (line or microphone) as
well as internal voices. Waveforms sampled using this feature can
be used in AWM voices, so your capacity to
create totally new AWM voices is truly unlimited.
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Acoustic Synthesis (EX5 and EX5R only)
Yamaha's Virtual Acoustic (" VL") Synthesis tone generation
system does not use oscillators, function generators, preset waveforms
or samples to produce sound. Rather, it applies sophisticated computer-based
"physical modeling" technology to musical sound synthesis.
In the same way that computer "models" are used to simulate
weather systems or the flight characteristics of aircraft in the
design stage, the VL system simulates the very complex vibrations,
resonances, reflections and other acoustic phenomena that occur
in a real wind or string instrument.
synthesis offers many advantages in terms of musical performance.
Not just in terms of sound, but also in terms of the "behavior"
that makes acoustic instruments so "musical." For example,
simply playing a note in the same way does not always produce precisely
the same sound - the instrument is responsive and "alive."
Rather than simply controlling parameters like volume or pitch,
you can control characteristics such as breath and reed pressure
with appropriate complex effects on the timbre
of the sound.
VL "Instrument" or "Wave"
The VL "instrument" or "wave" defines the
fundamental tone or timbre of the sound. The instrument model consists
primarily of a driver - the reed/ mouthpiece, lip/ mouthpiece, or
bow/ string system - and a resonant system corresponding to the
tube and air column or string. One of the remarkable features of
the Virtual Acoustic Synthesis system is that just about any driver
can be used with any type of pipe or string. The EX5/ 5R provides
a range of 272 preset VL "waves" which integrate all of
the necessary characteristics, and which can be assigned to voice
elements in much the same way as AWM waves (VL voices can have 1
VL element plus up to 3 AWM elements).
The input to an acoustic wind instrument comes from the player's
lungs, trachea, oral cavity, and lips. In a string instrument it
comes from the player's arm movement, transmitted to the string
via a bow. These factors actually form an important part of the
sound generating system and, in the VL model, are known as "controllers"
(note that these are parameters, not physical controllers like the
modulation wheels or knobs). The player also influences the sound
of the instrument by playing the keys, tone holes, or frets, and
this aspect of control constitutes another part of the "controllers"
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essence, the controller parameters determine how the instrument
"plays." All of these parameters can be assigned to any
external controller that can be used with the EX5 and EX5R: Foot
Controller, Modulation Wheel, Controller Knobs, Ribbon Controller,
Breath Controller, etc. The pressure parameter, for example, could
be assigned to a breath controller so the player can control the
dynamics of the instrument by varying the breath pressure applied
to the controller - a natural, instinctive way to play wind-instrument
voices. At the same time the growl and throat parameters might also
be assigned to the breath controller in order to achieve life-like
response and effects.
such as the Harmonic Enhancer and Dynamic Filter, are applied after
the VL controllers. Although these may
appear to be simple effects, they are actually intimately related
to the VL sound-producing model and have a significant effect
on the sound.
of the controller and modifier parameters provided by the EX5 and
EX5R are listed in the chart below.
the characteristics of the "player's" throat or bowing
amount of breath pressure applied to the reed or mouthpiece,
or bow velocity applied to the string.
periodic pressure (bow velocity) modulation which produces the
"growl" effect often heard in wind instruments.
tightness of the lips against the reed or against each other,
or the force of the bow against the string.
the half-tonguing technique used by saxophone players by changing
the "slit" of the reed.
the length of the air column or string, and thereby the pitch
of the sound.
the entire system into chaotic oscillation, creating effects
that can only be achieved with physical modelling technology.
breath noise to produce exceptionally realistic effects with
many wind instruments.
the effects of air friction in the pipe or on the string, and
of high-frequency losses at the end of the pipe or string.
Harmonic Enhancer determines the harmonic structure of the sound
to the extent that it can produce radical timbral variations
within an instrument "family" (e. g. saxes).
modifier is similar to the dynamic filters found in many conventional
synthesizers, with high-pass, bandpass, band elimination, and
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Synthesis (Analog Physical Modeling)
Although synthesizers have come a long way since the days of
VCOs (Voltage Controlled Oscillators), VCFs (Voltage Controlled
Filters), and VCAs (Voltage Controlled Amplifiers), modern digital
tone generators can't quite reproduce the punch, power, and interactive
control capabilities of such older systems. Yamaha AN Synthesis
(Analog Physical Modeling), however, offers all the benefits of
traditional analog synthesis with the stability, reproduceability,
and precise control of digital technology. It is capable of accurately
reproducing the sound of classic analog synthesizer without patch
cables, setting charts, or the frustrating instability that was
the bane of the analog age. AN Synthesis also offers many features
that were simply not possible in pure analog systems. It is, for
example, also capable of FM synthesis similar to the type that made
the legendary Yamaha DX7 one of the most popular synthesizers of
addition to single-element AN voices, the EX5 and EX5R allow two
AN elements to be layered to create even thicker analog
(Poly)+ AWM Voices / AN (Layer)+ AWM Voices
As shown in the diagrams below, a single AN element can be combined
with up to three AWM elements in AN( Poly)+ AWM voices. In the EX5
and EX5R, two AN elements can be combined with up to two AWM elements
in AN( Layer)+ AWM Voices.
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Synthesis (Formulated Digital Signal Processing)
FDSP, or "Formulated Digital Sound Processing," is
actually an adjunct to AWM synthesis. It adds a sophisticated note-dependent
effect processor to the basic AWM synthesis system. In contrast
to a standard effect stage, the FDSP synthesis stage uses individual
note and velocity data to control effect parameters, thus making
it possible to simulate the characterics of a number of real-world
musical components, as well as produce totally new effects. For
example, FDSP can effectively model the frequency and velocity dependent
characteristics of electromagnetic guitar or piano pickups, thus
adding more realistic response to these types of voices, or adding
a whole new dimension to other sounds. It can also alter the delay
time of flange or chorus type effects according to the note played,
thus producing totally new sounds that are responsive and "alive."
Many other effects are possible.
This block diagram is only one example of an FDSP configuration.
In this case the FDSP system is used to model the response of an
electric guitar pickup.
Voice Element Structure
In an FDSP voice up to four AWM elements can be fed to the FDSP
stage or routed directly to the normal effect stage as required.
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In both the Voice and Performance modes the [F7] function key
is marked "[ CTG]," for "Category." Press the
[CTG] function key to select voices belonging to the same category
(e. g. all piano voices in the "Pf" category) in sequence,
beginning with the
currently selected voice.
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When Purchasing DRAM SIMMs
Some of the commercially available DRAM SIMMs may not work on
the EX5/ 5R/ 7. Yamaha cannot be held responsible for malfunction
of DRAM SIMMs. BEFORE purchasing, please consult (which to buy)
the shop where you bought EX5/ 5R/ 7 or your nearest Yamaha (or
the authorized distributor) listed at the end of owner's manual.
Notices About DRAM SIMM Type/ Configuration.
need to use 72-pin DRAM SIMMs (4, 8, 16, 32MB) with the same memory
capacity in pairs.
° You need to use DRAM SIMMs with access time of 70ns or less.
° Both types, parity and non-parity types can be used. It is also
possible to use the EDO type.
° DRAM SIMMs corresponding to ECC cannot be used.
° For the EX5/ 7 (keyboard), you need to use DRAM SIMM with its
height less than 32mm.
° Yamaha recommends to select the DRAM SIMMs that meet the standard
specification for internal configuration set by the JEDEC*. However,
be aware that the recommendation does NOT always assure that the
DRAM SIMMs operate with the
EX5/ 5R/ 7.
JEDEC (Joint Electron Device Engineering Council) is a technical
electronic device association. This association sets regulations
for standard terminal configuration in electronic devices.
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Suppose that Control Set 1 has a combination of MW1 (Modulation
Wheel 1) as Src and LFO1 PWD (LFO1 Pitch Modulation Depth) as Dst
when Control Set 2 has a combination of MW1 as Src and Pan as Dst.
As rotating Modulation Wheel 1 upward, you will have a double effect
like a sound panned left to right while the pitch modulated deeper.
This is a typical example using multiple controller sets to control
multiple Dst from a certain Src.
another case that you have a certain control set that combines MW1
and FC (Foot Controller) as Src and LFO1 PMD as Dst. This enables
for a pitch modulation effect from both Modulation Wheel 1 and Foot
Controller so that you may use a more convenient one depending on
a performing situation. This is a typical example using multiple
Srcs (sources) to control a single Dst, and it is available with
a single controller set.
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Key Map Mode
The EX Key Map mode allows you to assign individual samples,
patterns, or pattern tracks to different keys of the keyboard, from
C-2 to G8. The assigned samples and/ or patterns can then be played
via the EX5/ EX7 keyboard, or via an external sequencer or other
MIDI controller on all models. Key Mapping makes it possible, for
example, to combine playback of looped rhythm samples with patterns
to create new rhythmic textures that can be controlled "live",
in real time.
Key Map mode can also be used for multi-sampling with wide-range
instruments such as piano or guitar. Several samples from different
ranges of the instrument can be assigned to corresponding ranges
of the keyboard for natural-sounding pitch and timbral variation
throughout the reproduced range.
The DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system used to create the
EX effects is also used by the AN, FDSP, and VL (EX5/ 5R only) tone
generators to create voices. This means that less DSP capacity is
available to produce effects when the aforementioned voice types
are used. This imposes limitations which are different for the EX5/
5R and EX7. The Reverb and Chorus effect units function normally
regardless of the type of voice used.
There are no limitations to using insertion effects in the EX5
or EX5R Voice mode. In the Performance mode, however, insertion
effects can be used on a maximum of 4 parts (voices) if the performance
setup consists entirely of AWM voices. If a VL, AN, or FDSP voice
is used in the performance setup, however, an insertion effect can
only be used on one part (voice).
In the EX7 Voice mode, Insertion effects can be used in AWM
voices, but not in any other voice type (AN or FDSP). In the Performance
mode, if the performance setup consists of only AWM voices, then
an insertion effect may be used on one voice. But if the performance
setup includes an AN or FDSP voice, then no insertion effects can
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